Voici un compte rendu sur la liberté de presse dans les pays sous l'influence de l'Islam. La majorité sont du Proche-Orient. On constate que plus la l'influence de l'Islam est forte, moins la liberté de presse est grande. Le fait d'être un état explicitement islamique ne semble pas avoir tellement d'influence ici. Ce qui importe est l'influence dominante de l'islam (sur le plan historique et cuturel) dans un pays. Le métier de journaliste dans un pays sous influence islamique est fort dangereux et dans le meilleure des circonstances, sujet à mille contraintes. Dans bon nombre de pays musulmans, une remise en question du président ou d’un ministre peut être considéré une insulte méritant la peine de mort dans certains cas (comme ce fur le cas sous le régime de Sadaam Hussein). En général, la presse dans les pays sous l'influence islamique doit respecter deux interdits:
1. ne jamais critiquer l'Islam
2. ne jamais critiquer l'État (et ses dirigeants) où réside l'institution de presse.
|Pour ce qui est de la liberté d'expression sur Internet, on peut obtenir une autre perspective sur la question sur le site de OpenNet Initiative. Ce projet, qui est le résultat d'une collaboration entre trois universités nord-américaines, examine la censure sur Internet. Leurs études de cas incluent quelques pays où l'islam est dominant dont l'Iran, les Émirats Arabes Unis et l'Arabie Saoudite. Dans tous les pays où existe la censure, l'internet pose un nouveau défi, mais en général la solution est simple, prendre à la gorge (ou contrôler totalement) les fournisseurs internet (ISP/Internet Service Provider) qui se voient obligés d'installer des logiciels filtres qui rendent inaccessibles les sites Internet au contenu interdit. En somme, c'est de la censure électronique.|
"Les lois sur la diffamation et les insultes dans tout le Moyen Orient continue à museler la libre parole. Les écrivains sont souvent accusés dinsulter les dirigeants de leur pays, lappareil judicaire, ou la réputation de létat. Les peines privatives de liberté peuvent aller de sanctions draconiennes (par exemple en Iran) à des amendes ou des peines avec sursis. Les pays dans lesquels PEN a constaté lapplication des lois sur la diffamation et les insultes au cours du premier semestre de 2006 sont lEgypte, lIran, lIrak, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Syrie et le Yémen."
Mais on a pensé à une solution, un bon soupape de pression, toujours utile. On peut toujours critiquer Israël... Les notes (désolé, c'est en anglais) qui suivent sont tirées textuellement du The News of the Century: Press Freedom par Leonard R. Sussman publié par l'organisme Freedom House. Dans ce rapport, on a fait une analyse de la situation de la liberté de presse dans tous les pays du monde. Dans le monde francophone, un rapport semblable est produit par le groupe Reporters sans frontières.
IMPORTANT: Il faut tenir compte de la date de publication de ce rapport
(1999), c'est -à-dire AVANT le 11 septembre et les représailles
américaines qui ont précipité la chute du régime
taliban enAfghanistan ainsi que celui de Saddam Hussein en Irak. L'on peut
retrouver la version intégrale de ce rapport sur la presse mondiale
sur le site de Freedom House
ainsi qu'une version plus récente de ce rapport où, sur le fond,
peu de choses ont changées dans le monde islamique.
Il faut préciser ce que signifie la cote à la fin de la dernière
ligne de la note.
F = Free / Libre
PF = Partly Free / Partiellement libre et/ou censurée
NF = Not Free / Censurée
Évidemment ceux qui ne peuvent tolérer la réalité
des faits vont affirmer que tout ça est un "complot juif".
Quand il y n'a pas d'autres portes de sortie, ça peut toujours servir...
This is probably the most severely restrictive country in the world. An edict issued this year by religious police ordered the disposal of all television sets, VCRs, and videocassettes within 15 days. The only Afghani TV station was shut down by the Taliban in 1996.
15 15 15 5 100
15 15 15 5 NF
Journalists were consulted about a new information law, but the draft did not provide sufficient guarantees of press freedom. Suspended newspapers did not resume publishing. State monopoly on printing has not been lifted. The government threatened to suspend four newspapers if they did not quickly settle debts with the state printer. The papers had been alleging abuse of power. Islamists as well as the government threaten and attack news media. Journalists faced sentencing for publishing threats and insults. One journalist, missing after being arrested by men in police uniform, was allegedly interrogated and tortured.
15 15 10 0 83
13 10 15 5 NF
Freedom of speech and the press are sharply restricted. Privately-owned newspapers refrain from criticizing the regime, while radio and television are government-owned and offer only official propaganda. The government continued to prohibit the publication or broadcast of information from the State Security Court in the trial of 18 accused of arson and possessing explosives.
13 12 7 0 69
13 13 10 1 NF
The government owns all broadcast media, the country’s three major daily newspapers, and most magazines and weekly newspapers, the vast majority of which are printed and run by one of seven government-owned press houses. Egypt’s 14 political parties also have the constitutional right to print newspapers. Independent publications can only be established by forming a joint-stock company, which requires the approval of the prime minister. Scores of publishers, including most of the country’s English-language press bought permits in Cyprus or Greece and were allowed to print in Egyptian tax-free zones and distribute their publications in Egypt. Press freedom violations increased, particularly the criminal conviction of journalists. At least 34 journalists awaited trial or were under investigation for alleged offenses. Four print-journalists were sentenced to prison for libel and slander; two were released after four months Authorities halted publication of over 30 newspapers in the free-trade zone. Most were foreign-language or foreign-licensed. Five months later, a court lifted the ban which awaited appeal by the government. Three newspapers lost printing and distribution licenses and were banned.
8 14 9 0 69
11 12 10 5 NF
With broadcasting under strict government control, authorities concentrate on the print press. The press law lays out “responsibilities of the press” to insure that its content is free from criminal or civil liability. Journalists, editors, and financial backers are liable for the content of publications. Throughout 1997 and 1998 the government cracked down on print journalists. By year-end, 16 journalists had received long prison terms, 27 had fled the country, and 33 others were awaiting trial.
10 10 10 0 64
10 15 4 5 NF
The country moved from having one of the most restricted to one of the freer presses in Asia. President Suharto’s successor, B. J. Habibie, took steps quickly to express support for press freedom. He approved several hundred applications for press licenses, and pushed for greater openness. He lifted the restriction on Tempo, the newsweekly banned four years earlier. Violence accompanied demonstrations for economic reforms. Arrests and attacks on journalists which occurred all year before Suharto resigned, resumed as students and others were repulsed by police. After the change in government, one reporter received a death threat from a regional military commander, a Canadian journalist was expelled, and four print journalists were attacked by security forces covering street clashes. The press still self-censors in this new violent era.
12 5 3 3 53
10 5 12 3 PF
Press freedom is slowly improving since the 1997 election of President Mohammad Khatami. Many more newspapers, magazines and periodicals are published, and the minister of culture has nearly doubled the number of licenses for publications since last year. Islamic fundamentalists do not approve the more liberal approach and the media suffer in this power struggle. Tolerance is arbitrary and crackdowns occur frequently. Closures of newspapers are frequent, but there is a tradition to defy the authorities by publishing the censored newspaper under another name. A prominent writer-journalist, campaigning for liberal ideas, disappeared and was later found dead. Another editor-in-chief was sentenced to death on charges of “adultery and spying for unnamed foreign countries.” The sentence has since been suspended. Two journalists were arrested, seven newspapers were closed, most of them for “insulting state authorities and publishing lies,” their editors arrested, sentenced and fined or suspended from work. Two print journalists were arrested for publishing news on an assassination attempt on a public figure. A newspaper office was stormed by armed forces and the staff assaulted.
10 14 10 0 76
14 13 10 5 NF
Broadcasting is state-run and provides government news and views. There is a death penalty for insulting the president and other officials. A media law prohibits coverage of 12 specific subjects. There was a slight improvement in media policies. The media lobbied to permit foreign media to report the plight of the Iraqi people under UN sanctions. For the first time since 1968, newspapers outside the B’aath party are published, though under hardship conditions. Three foreign broadcasting companies (BBC was banned for five years) have established offices. More then 14 satellite uplink stations have been set up without being directly censored. The ministry of information, however, closely monitors the content once aired. The possession of satellite dishes by private persons is illegal, and access to the Internet is not provided. Clandestine radio listening is flourishing. About 20 stations air alternative views throughout the country. Iraqi radio infrastructure was badly damaged by air attacks. Prague based Radio Free Europe began broadcasting in November. One print journalist was arrested and detained for two months for articles on government corruption.
15 14 15 5 98
15 14 15 5 NF
Israeli, Palestinian and foreign media must practice self-censorship according to a “voluntary” agreement last revised in 1996. The defense emergency regulations dating back to 1945 allow the government to ban publications and restrict distribution summarily. The law authorizes the government and the military to censor any material reported from Israel or the occupied territories regarded as sensitive on national security grounds. However, news printed or broadcast abroad may be reported in Israel without censorship. Arabic language publications are censored more frequently than those in the Hebrew language. In 1998, an Israeli TV journalist received death threats from Jewish extremists for producing a TV series which challenged the traditional Israeli version of history. Two Israeli journalists were severely beaten by Islamic demonstrators in Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. The police intervened to rescue the journalists but claimed not to have an order to arrest the attackers.
3 2 2 1 28
8 6 2 4 F
Israel-administered (occupied) territories and Palestinian Authority
The situation of the media deteriorated after the Wye accords. The Palestinian National Authority implied that news media should be regarded as an arm of the PNA. Censorship is unpredictable and intimidation and harassment of journalists frequent, leading to self-censorship. The Wye accord proposes a forum to deal with the prevention of hate speech. It also makes it easier to accuse journalists of supporting terrorism. A Palestinian free-lance journalist was held for nine days without charge and reportedly tortured by the intelligence service. Reuters’ Gaza office was closed because of a video in which a Hamas member accused authorities of killing an associate. The police closed the Bethlehem-based Shepherd TV station for a program on the Iraq/US-crisis. The ministry of information banned all broadcasting of opinion and analysis about the standoff between UN weapons inspectors and Iraq. Six television and radio stations in the West Bank were closed by order of the NP. Although no official statement was given, the closures came as an indirect response to the coverage of the US and British military strikes in December, including the coverage of anti-US sentiment and expression of sympathy with Iraq from Palestinians. Without explanation, police sealed the doors of eight news organizations, including the Associated Press’s Gaza bureau. Nine journalists were detained by police while covering pro-Iraq demonstrations in the West Bank and the Gaza strip. Eight other journalists, among them foreign reporters and cameramen, were detained in Gaza City after covering a rally of a radical PLO faction.
12 12 0 4 65
12 12 8 5 NF
A new press law gravely threatens press freedom. It lists 14 subjects on which the press must not report. Article 37 bans the coverage of a wide array of topics, including news deemed to infringe on the independence of the judiciary, defame the heads of Arab, Islamic or friendly states, or harm national unity. Violators are subject to high fines. Article 31 empowers censorship of publications entering Jordan, and Article 35 for censorship of books published in the kingdom. The law also requires weeklies to submit a deposit of roughly $70,000 with the minister of information. A London-based daily Arabic newspaper was banned for an indefinite time; an editor charged with “distorting Jordan’s image abroad.” Four editors were detained, three for articles on the prime minister. Five journalists were sent to prison for six months each, four for defamation, one for harming Jordanian relations with a friendly state. One newspaper was pre-censored for a story about murder. A journalist was violently assaulted in front of his home by unidentified men. One journalist was arrested after denouncing the water pollution crisis and the new press law. The government revoked credentials of a Qatar-based satellite TV-station, and those of its five employees.
14 10 6 1 65
14 11 4 5 NF
Although there is self-censorship, criticism of the government by the print media is not unusual. The government only rarely uses its ability to pre-censor. This law was actually withdrawn after the Gulf War in 1992, in an attempt to create more openness of the media and the government itself. There are taboo subjects as elsewhere in this region: the emir and his family, Islam, and the relationship to other friendly neighbor-states. Audiovisual media are strictly controlled by the government. Seven journalists are still in prison for collaboration with Iraq during the invasion of Kuwait in 1990. In 1998, a Kuwaiti court sentenced the editor-in-chief and a journalist of a daily newspaper to a fine and six months imprisonment for publishing a joke that the information ministry deemed offensive. A draft law was submitted for approval by the official committee in charge of satellite censorship.
9 11 0 0 45
9 11 4 1 PF
Under the 1994 broadcasting law, four privately-owned television stations and 11 radio stations were licensed in 1996. All are linked to pro-Syrian government officials and represent different religious groups. State-owned television has a legal monopoly until 2012, but private stations are tolerated. The licensing process, controlled by the cabinet, restricts criticism of the president and foreign leaders. Security-related information is broadly prohibited. About 15 newspapers are published, most have small circulation and appeal to distinct though varied audiences with sharp political, religious, or Syrian points of view. The owner and editor-in-chief of a newspaper were charged with defamation of the president. A cartoonist of the same newspaper was also charged for defamation of the judiciary. The editor-in-chief of another daily newspaper was fined $33,000 for “insulting” the king of Saudi Arabia. A print journalist was sentenced by the military tribunal to three years in prison, accused of having “visited without permission an enemy country and having shown contempt for judicial and security authorities.”
14 12 6 0 62
8 12 8 2 NF
Media are strictly controlled by Col. Muammar Gaddafi. Journalists know it is dangerous to publish news contrary to the government view. Foreign news entering the country is censored. A daily newspaper was banned indefinitely for articles which “attack fraternal Arab States and friendly countries.” The staff was suspended.
15 15 15 0 92
15 15 15 2 NF
The constitution provides for freedom of expression, but by Moroccan law and tradition there are three major taboos: the monarchy, Morocco’s claim to the Western Sahara, and the sanctity of Islam. Statements on these topics are seen as crimes against state security. Criticizing the king or his family can bring 5 to 20 years in prison. Article 77 of the press code authorizes the interior minister to seize or close a publication. But these measures are not used frequently as the media are accustomed to self-censorship on sensitive matters. Compared to other countries of the region the Moroccan press enjoys more liberty to report on political and social matters. There are several hundred publications which represent diverse political opinions. While the print media have benefited from liberalization in recent years, the audiovisual media and the official news agency are controlled directly by the government.
11 6 0 1 51
11 10 10 2 PF
Strict censorship of the broadcast and print media prevails. The government controls all broadcasts from centers at Muscat and Salalah. By law, criticism of the Sultan is prohibited. All imported as well as domestic publications are censored. There is no private radio or TV. Self-censorship is endemic.
15 15 0 0 75
15 15 15 0 NF
Radio and television, mainly owned and operated by the government, generally favor the ruling party. State TV is used to condemn the opposition. Newspapers are more varied. The English-language press is among the most outspoken in South Asia, but it came under strong government attacks. Laws and constitutional provisions restrict freedom of expression over broad subjects, including the army and Islam. Some 22 cases of serious press-freedom violations were recorded. One journalist was murdered, and eight others physically attacked. Some 21 journalists were arrested in 10 separate incidents. Eight newspapers were suspended. Five newspaper offices were raided and ransacked.
6 13 0 5 60
9 13 9 5 PF
This is the most liberal of the Persian Gulf States since it abolished official censorship in 1995. In 1997, the government ended the ministry of information’s strict controls of the source and distribution of news. The ministry launched a satellite station which broadcasts news of current affairs throughout the region. The ministry of endowments and Islamic affairs censors cable television, imported videos, and news from abroad. Criticism of the ruling family or Islam is prohibited in print and broadcast.
8 14 10 0 62
8 12 10 0 NF
Reporting on government-owned radio and television is limited to official views. Radio and TV journalists are civil servants. They must not report on “the customs of non-Muslims, people drinking alcohol, strikes, demonstrations, or riots taking place in other countries.” The print media are privately owned, but publicly subsidized. National security laws prohibit criticism of the government. The ministry of information appoints and may remove editors-in-chief and provides guidelines to newspapers on controversial issues. The government owns the Saudi Press Agency, which expresses official government views. Two Saudi-owned, London-based dailies are widely read in Saudi Arabia, but self-censor to comply with government restrictions. The ministry of information relaxed its blackout policy regarding politically sensitive news in international media, but restrictions on reporting of domestic news remain stringent. Saudi access to outside sources of information, especially Cable News Network (CNN) and other satellite TV channels, is increasingly widespread. Newspapers based abroad may circumvent censorship, though they are banned occasionally. Foreign journalists must be screened by authorities and none are based in the capital.
15 15 10 0 85
15 15 15 0 NF
Free expression is not possible. Few journalists work here now. Various factions operate radio stations. The editor of the daily newspaper has been arrested several times the past two years. In 1998, he was arrested for “insulting important personalities, circulation of false information, and criticizing the leaders of the republic.” He had reported on an Islamic court’s sentences of of amputation against 33 people, and a rift between army brigades and the government. A few photocopied newsletters have limited circulation. International correspondents visit at some risk.
15 15 13 0 88
15 15 13 2 NF
All broadcast media are under strict government control, and reflect official policies. Radio is the main source of information. The press law puts independent print media under threat. Apart from jail sentences, journalists who dare to criticize the government face flogging, amputation, and stoning. Women journalists who worked for state-owned media have been fired. Unmarried women employed in state broadcasting were advised to marry within months or face unspecified consequences. A publisher of one newspaper was abducted and warned his paper would be burned. Authorities confiscated editions of two newspapers seized at the publishing house. Another daily was suspended for two days for carrying a “blasphemous” article.
15 15 7 0 85
15 15 13 5 NF
The government and the Ba’ath party own and control the media, which reflect government views. Reading an unauthorized news report can result in a 15-year prison term. Foreign journalists are also prevented from reporting on important issues. The government interferes with broadcasts from neighboring countries, mostly from Lebanon. Foreign publications are censored. Foreign satellite television flourishes. Although the government warned citizens not to install dishes, it has not enforced the ban because most of the Arabic-language channels available in Syria are backed by Arab governments with similar interests in content restrictions.
15 15 7 0 74
15 15 7 0 NF
Radio and television are tightly controlled by the government. Journalists who have been reporting on sensitive political issues or critical of state policy have been targets of swift official responses, including dismissal from their jobs, denial of accreditation, and restrictions on foreign travel. Official guidelines shape coverage, and pre-publication submission requirements allow the government to seize any publication. In particular, the private press is highly self-censored, and heavy control makes private and governmental publications virtually indistinguishable in their coverage of governmental policies. In past years, foreign correspondents have been expelled for “critical coverage.” Foreign newspapers were banned for material deemed unfavorable to Tunisia. A Paris-based reporter was told to stop writing. A Parisian newspaper was seized for its reporting.
15 15 0 0 74
15 15 9 5 NF
Government strongly influences radio and television over both public and private systems. Control is based on the government’s opposition to Kurdish autonomy, and what is officially regarded as the pro-Kurdish terrorist movement, the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK). Other issues not permitted are pro-Communist views, the role of the army in the government and state, Islam, the Armenian problem, and relations with Greece and Cyprus. Terrestrial broadcasting is controlled by the radio and television supreme board, which can suspend and censor stations. Satellite television is more difficult to control, and it is used for Kurdish language broadcasting (based in London). However, watching these stations is illegal, and the possession of satellite dishes is prohibited by the authorities. Until June 1998, there appeared to be no restrictions on information received through the Internet. Nevertheless, one user was given a 10 month-suspended prison sentence for “insulting the state” on the Internet. Despite an amnesty law which took effect in August 1997, and which was followed by the release of six editors-in-chief, several laws continue to undermine freedom of the press: Article 8 of the anti terrorist law, and articles 311, 312 (inciting crime and hatred) and 159 (insulting the state) of the criminal code. The main targets of police actions are media qualified as subversive, pro-Kurdish, and far-left. In 1998, three journalists received prison sentences of up to two years. At least 20 journalists were detained or arrested. Some were beaten or severely tortured. Several journalists were assaulted by Islamic demonstrators or threatened. One was shot and injured. The staffs of two pro-Kurdish newspapers were detained several times following raids on their offices and seizure of material. The London-based Kurdish-language satellite TV station was jammed. Three radio stations were suspended. A bomb exploded in the offices of a pro-Kurdish newspaper, and a TV station was attacked by a gunman.
11 13 3 5 69
12 12 8 5 NF
United Arab Emirates
All radio and television is government-owned and -operated according to strict official guidelines. Satellite dishes provide access to foreign stations like CNN and the BBC World Service. There is no independent press, though newspapers are privately owned. Although there is no overt censorship, journalists do not criticize the government for fear of punishment.
15 15 6 0 76
15 15 10 0 NF
The ministry of information influences the media by its ownership of the printing presses, subsidies to certain newspapers, and its ownership of the television and radio companies. Most Yemenites get their news from television. Critical reporting of the government, however, is not permitted and broadcast news items are usually selected by the authorities. International news can be received generally uncensored. In 1998, a three-man TV crew of a foreign station was detained for reporting from a region they had entered without official permission. Two print journalists were arrested and detained for their articles.
15 15 0 0 68
13 13 9 3 NF"